Odorology is a technique that uses specially-trained dogs to identify human scent. It is used in police investigations to establish that an individual has been at the scene of a crime. However, there is no international norm on how these dogs are trained. At the Centre de recherche en neurosciences de Lyon , researchers specializing in scents and their memorization have analyzed data, provided since 2003 by the Division of the Technical and Scientific Police (DTSP, Ecully) on dog performances in scent identification tasks. Their results show that, at the end of a 24-month training program, the dogs are able to recognize the smell of an individual in 80-90% of cases and never mistake it for that of another. These findings validate the procedures that are currently in use and should convince the international community of the reliability of this method. This work was published on 10 February 2016 in the journal PLOS ONE .
Odorology, or the science of smells, is a method of identifying human scents. It has been used in France since 2003 in police investigations to establish that an individual has been present at a crime scene. The method is based on the fact that each person has their own scent and relies on the powerful canine sense of smell (which can be 200 to 10,000 times more sensitive than that of a human being). It involves a long period of dog training.
This technique consists in using a specially-trained dog to compare a human scent collected from an object found at a crime scene with scents from several people, including that of a suspect or victim. As the results of these tests are of critical importance for investigators, they need to be obtained through viable and reproducible methods. However, there are no internationally recognized norms for the training of these dogs or for their inclusion in investigations -- hence the occasional reluctance to treat their evidence as proof. By analyzing results collected since 2003 at the Division of the Technical and Scientific Police (DTSP, Ecully), researchers from the Centre de recherche en neurosciences de Lyon have succeeded in demonstrating the viability of the technique used.
During basic training, the German and Belgian shepherd police dogs must learn to make the link between two scents from the same individual through the completion of increasingly complex tasks. By the end of this training, the dogs are able to carry out identification exercises during which they sniff a reference human scent and then compare it with five different human odors, one of which is the reference scent. When a dog matches the scent in the jar to the reference one (which it shows by lying down in front of the correct jar) it is rewarded with a treat or a game. The human odors may consist of traces collected from an object that someone has touched or of a scent collected directly from a person.
The analysis of the data obtained with the 13 DTSP dogs since 2003 shows that after they have learned the task's principles, 24 months of regular training is necessary for stable and optimal performances. At the end of the first twelve months, the dogs no longer made any recognition errors, i.e., they did not confuse the scent of one person with that of another. Furthermore, their olfactory sensitivity increased significantly over the training period: on average, after two years, the dogs managed to recognize two scents from the same person in 85% of cases. The remaining 15% of cases in which no match was obtained, were mostly the result of poor scent sampling rather than poor recognition.
The researchers also found that German shepherds were better than Belgian shepherds, undoubtedly because they are more disciplined and attentive.
At the end of their basic training, the dogs are able to participate in criminal cases and receive continuing training throughout their lives. In practice, each identification test is carried out by at least two dogs. Additionally, each dog performs at least two tests with the same panel of scents: the collected scent is presented either as a sample to be sniffed at the start of the task, or in one of the jars that the dog sniffs successively. Between 2003 and 2016, odorology was used in 522 cases at the SDPTS and helped to resolve 162 cases.
In these criminal cases, the sampled scents were only a few hours or days old. The researchers now want to study how the dogs perform on older scents. Scent samples can in fact be stored in scent libraries over several years.
The body of a 19th century serial killer is being exhumed in suburban Philadelphia at the request of his great-grandchildren, who hope identifying his remains will quell centuries-old rumors that he conned his way out of his execution and escaped from prison.
A Delaware County judge gave the go-ahead to exhume the remains of Dr. H. H. Holmes in a court order dated March 9. The Archdiocese of Philadelphia, which owns Holy Cross Cemetery in Yeadon where the body was located, confirmed the exhumation was to take place but it wasn't immediately clear when the process started. WCAU-TV in Philadelphia showed footage for a front-end loader removing dirt from a grave at Holy Cross Cemetery on Friday.
Holmes, the pseudonym of New Hampshire-born physician Herman Webster Mudgett, is believed to have killed an undetermined number people at his hotel of horrors during the 1893 Chicago World's Fair. It featured a bizarre labyrinth of windowless rooms, secret passageways, false floors, trapdoors, and a vault. Most of the rooms had gas vents, which were controlled from Mudgett's bedroom. Many of the rooms were soundproof and could only be locked from the outside.
But it was the murder of his business partner in Philadelphia that led to his conviction and hanging in 1896.
The exhumation and DNA analysis will be performed by the Anthropology Department at the University of Pennsylvania. The great-grandchildren — John and Richard Mudgett and Cynthia Mudgett Soriano, all of California — submitted DNA samples to the university, according to their petition seeking the exhumation.
Judge Chad Kenney's order states that the remains are to be re-interred in the same grave after testing, whether or not they belong to Holmes.
A humanitarian tragedy continues to unfold along the U.S.-Mexican border.
As American border security has tightened since the 1990s, a “funnel effect” has pushed people seeking to sneak into the U.S. into more remote areas, particularly the inhospitable Arizona desert. Thousands have died from heat and exposure, and occasionally homicide. Hundreds remain unidentified.
But a new deep dive into the DNA of these nameless dead has indicated they have disproportionately greater Native American ancestry rather than European genetics, a team reports this week in the journal American Anthropologist .
The work makes new forays into how much traditional DNA databases can tell us about the most desperate, and desperately unknown, persons of all.
PULLING ANCESTRY FROM CODIS
The paper looks at 238 unidentified persons and 118 identified people based on the 13 CODIS markers in their genetic profiles. Those profiles were compared to a reference samples of some 1,200 predominantly indigenous people, as well as approximately 1,000 people of mostly European background, along with nearly 100 African-Americans.
Ancestry is not supposed to be encoded in the simple set of CODIS markers, which was intended in the 1990s to be a series of simple individual identifiers without any other information attached.
But some of the authors, including Bridget Algee-Hewitt of Stanford University, dropped a bombshell analysis last year in the journal Current Biology : CODIS markers do indeed tell a story of ancestry that is just beginning to be understood .
The latest exploration of the unidentified border crossing (UBC) dead is external validation of those revelations, said Algee-Hewitt.
The DNA showed these dead of the Arizona desert, examined at the Pima County Office of the Medical Examiner from 1972 to 2013, fit a trend. The UBCs were mostly from native populations in the southernmost states of Mexico.
"Identification bias" is shown in the ongoing years of anthropological work, said Algee-Hewitt. Increasing numbers of people with more European genes are successfully identified, while the indigenous people continue to go unnamed.
Because the people were generally disenfranchised and desperate in life, their deaths left an unanswerable riddle for authorities on both sides of the border.
The complex racial history of Mexico complicates what is happening along the border, added Cris Hughes, an anthropologist at the University of Illinois who is another of the authors.
“In Mexico, indigenous populations are concentrated in southern states, and poverty is more prevalent in the south,” said Hughes. “There is a deep distrust between indigenous peoples in Mexico and their government, founded on a history of oppression by those in power.”
Further breakthroughs were also made by Algee-Hewitt, well-known for her work in craniofacial measurements and bone aging through pelvic observations. The Stanford anthropologist told Forensic Magazine that applied craniometry also backed up the DNA findings— preliminary results of which were presented at the annual February meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences .
“The quantity of Native American ancestry has increased in recent years, is distributed along a Northwest to Southeast geographic cline, and is greatest among individuals for whom ID status is low and identification-related information (e.g., place of birth or origin) is incomplete,” said Algee-Hewitt.
The work is ongoing, she added.
‘THE DESERT DOESN’T DISCRIMINATE’
These people die along the border mostly as they seek specific blue-collar jobs in the United States, according to Bruce Anderson, a forensic anthropologist at the Pima County Office of the Medical Examiner, and one of the authors.
Nearly 3,000 people have died along the border over the last 18 years, Anderson told Forensic Magazine . The environment is unforgiving, even among the younger males who attempt to make the crossing.
“The desert doesn’t discriminate based on ancestry,” Anderson said. “It’s always been a deadly crossing, and it’s only gotten more deadly since the INS changed their policies in the 1990s.”
Anderson and others have demonstrated in a series of papers how the so-called “funnel effect” of tightening border security in California and Texas had driven smugglers and the immigrants to the more desolate deserts of Arizona—and increased danger.
A separate 2014 investigation in the Journal on Migration and Human Security found that most border crossings were made during the summer months. That was exactly why most of the hundreds of deaths annually were due to hyperthermia and other heat-related environmental causes, they found.
But often the cause is not known—especially if only bones are left, Anderson said.
The populist campaign of Donald Trump that won the U.S. presidency last November was based on a promise to build a wall along the border with Mexico, at Mexico’s expense. Anderson said knowing the realities of the smuggling along the border has shown that a complete wall will be an impossibility, due to geography and the persistence of people seeking a way under or around it.
The end result of building a new wall will be more bones out in the desert, Anderson added.
“If you put a wall between a desperate person and their goal, they will find a way around it,” said Anderson. “Probably more deaths will occur.”
Forensic investigators could get a head start on tracking down suspects, using a new technology to assess saliva for gender, according to a new study.
The technique is part of a growing body of work at the University at Albany intended to assist detectives in real-time, using tools directly at a crime scene, right from the moment of discovery.
“This would be done entirely on site with the use of a portable Raman instrument, all without risking any damage to the sample,” the authors write. “It would allow investigators to immediately develop a preliminary suspect or victim profile at a crime scene.”
Currently, saliva can be collected and then processed at a laboratory using intensive techniques. But that is time consuming, and it also potentially destroys the sample.
The Raman spectroscopy method, which essentially uses lasers to vibrate molecules and measured the scattered light, can be taken directly to the sample instead – and then used without destroying it, the scientists report.
The 48 samples assessed with the technique determined the chemical signatures that differed between males and females. They accurately identified the sex of 45 of the donors, they report.
Scientists at the school have been incrementally working toward a chemical toolkit for criminal forensics to deploy at scenes. Much of the work has been helmed by Jan Halamek, a biochemist focused on the chemical clues in bodily fluids. Halamek and his team have about a dozen papers recent published or pending on the forensic applications of the secrets held by bodily fluids. (Though Halamek did not take part in this latest paper).
Late last year, Halamek and his the team published a paper in the journal Analytical Chemistry in which they found the amino acids within a fingerprint were more than 99 percent accurate in determining sex, since females have higher concentrations of them. Earlier this year, the Halamek team published their findings on blood markers – how a single chemical marker in the blood – alkaline phosphatase, or ALP – not only indicates what age a person is, but also can determine how long ago a sample was deposited at the scene.
“It’s all about the biomarkers, looking for the attributes of a person,” Halamek told Forensic Mag earlier this year in an extended interview. “It’s pure chemistry.”
The latest saliva findings appear to further that concept – though more validation needs to be done on larger segments of the population, write the scientists.
“This study brings us one step closer to the successful completion of developing a universal method for the analysis of body fluid traces at a crime scene, and should be considered a proof-of-concept since it still needs to be expanded to realistic crime scene samples of saliva on common substrates,” they add.
Crime scene technicians are responsible for photographing, looking for latent prints, and collecting evidence at crime scenes. Because of crime volume, crime scene technicians do not respond to all crime scenes. Many departments rely on specially trained officers or public safety aides to handle crime scene processing of less violent offenses, such as motor vehicle thefts and burglaries of homes and vehicles.
Training of officers for this time-consuming and methodical work is often a limited, one-time event. Refresher courses on crime scene processing are typically not offered, providing minimal assurances that officers are following protocol or handling evidence properly. Without periodic training, officers are also not exposed to changing technology or more efficient methods of crime scene processing and evidence collection.
Challenges of Crime Scene Processing
Every crime scene is different and involves decisions such as whether to process evidence at the scene, collect evidence for later processing at the crime laboratory, or request assistance from the crime scene unit. When deciding how to approach latent print processing, factors that may affect the method include weather conditions, contamination of evidence, and whether the evidence is on a porous or nonporous surface.
Weather becomes an issue when it is raining and the officer is faced with processing a soaking-wet vehicle. The best course of action is usually to tow the vehicle to a police facility to allow the vehicle to dry before processing. If this is not an option, the second-best option is to ask the victim to call for processing when the vehicle is dry. If neither of these options is available, the officer is often limited to processing items inside the vehicle for latent prints and possible DNA. Touch, wear, or saliva DNA can often be found in a burglarized vehicle.
DNA should be the officer’s first focus. Collecting it would involve taking a sterile swab lightly dampened with distilled water and swabbing the steering wheel, turn signal, gear shift, and edges of the rearview mirror. Inside the vehicle, there may be other miscellaneous items that the officer may decide to swab such as drink cups or cans, cigarette packs, or cell phones. If the victim is available, the officer should ask him or her to carefully look inside the vehicle to see if they see anything that does not belong to them, and therefore may have been left by the perpetrator.
After carefully collecting possible touch DNA swabs, the officer should process the following locations for latent prints:
The decision whether to process items found inside a burglarized home or vehicle often hinges on whether or not the item is porous or non-porous. Porous evidence consists of items that, when touched, will absorb fingerprint residue like a sponge. Examples would be unfinished wood, paper, cardboard, and fabrics. Non-porous evidence consists of items that, when touched, will preserve the latent print on the surface unless disturbed. Examples of these would be glass, metal, and plastics.
Non-porous items can be processed at the crime scene using black or gray powder and a fiberglass brush. More advanced methods of chemical processing for non-porous evidence include superglue fuming and enhancement with powder or fluorescent dyes. If the officer suspects the object may have belonged to or been touched by the suspect, the best decision would be to collect and preserve the evidence for latent print processing in the crime laboratory.
Porous items usually respond better to chemical processing methods, such as iodine or ninhydrin, than the application of fingerprint powder. Vehicles that have been exposed to rain or heavy humidity will often have damp miscellaneous paper items scattered in the vehicle or in the glove box that will need to be dried before processing. There are some chemicals, such as Oil Red, which develop prints on damp paper more efficiently than ninhydrin or iodine. Paper items that have recently been touched react well to processing with magnetic powder; however, as a basic rule officers should collect paper items and submit the evidence for processing in the crime laboratory.
Specially trained patrol officers and public safety aides play a crucial role in solving crimes by assisting the crime scene technicians with less violent offenses. Periodic training in crime scene processing can assist these officers, which is beneficial to any police department. Citizens in the community who are victimized expect law enforcement to respond to burglaries and motor vehicle thefts and identify suspects. The more efficient officers are in processing evidence, the more time they will have to answer other calls.
FORT MYERS, Fla. — Although Jan Cornell never stopped hoping for closure in the brutal 1990 murders of her daughter Robin Cornell and roommate Lisa Story, she calls the arrest of a suspect
nothing short of a miracle.
Cape Coral police Chief David Newlan announced Wednesday that Joseph Zieler, 54, of North Fort Myers, was arrested for the murders of Story and Cornell. “It was like winning the lottery of justice,” Cornell said. “Every prayer, every word, everything, came full circle.”
Cornell was at her boyfriend's home on the evening of May 9, 1990, watching television when she fell asleep. When she returned home she discovered that her daughter, 11, and roommate, 32, had been killed inside the apartment. Zieler was in Lee County jail on a felony aggravated battery charge for shooting his son with a pellet gun in August when a DNA test matched him to evidence found at the scene of the murders 26 years ago.
Zieler, who was 28 at the time of the double murder, will face five charges, including two counts of sexual battery, one count of burglary and two counts of first degree murder. He is scheduled to have his first appearance for these charges Thursday morning in Lee County court. Jan Cornell said there was no way to describe how she felt when police came to her home Monday to give her the news.
“It was a miracle,” she said.
Cornell said she has no idea who Zieler is, has no connection and no information on the man who has been implicated in the double murder. “I’ve looked at every outlet to see where there might have been a connection,” she said. Cornell credited the 2009 law that requires DNA testing for those arrested for felonies for helping break the case.
“When you are looking for someone who killed people you loved you just get more hope,” she said. ”If (Zieler) never got in trouble this case would never be solved. This is the beginning of the end.” The Lee County Sheriff’s Office notified Cape Coral police when Zieler's DNA received a hit on CODIS, Newlan said. Further DNA from Zieler was obtained and tested by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement. The results came back positive with evidence collected in the apartment at Courtyards of Cape Coral Condominiums.
"We got him," Newlan said. “This brings closure to the family. Twenty-six years is a long time.”
The arrest closes the city's longest open homicide. The case has drawn attention over the years airing on America’s Most Wanted three times as well as on other similar crime shows and in dozens of publications. Police officers and others involved in the case shared Cornell’s elation. “To tell you the system works is the best thing ever,” said Christy Jo Ellis, chief investigator for the Cape Coral police. “I’m over the moon. It was so surreal when I got the phone call. I said, ‘Are you kidding me?’”
Ellis said that the case is on track to being solved makes her feel great as she approaches the 25th anniversary of her police career, adding that she always believed the case would be solved. “It’s just phenomenal,” she said. “We have the lock, we just need the key.”
She said Zieler's arrest was a welcome surprise.
“This guy has been off the radar for 26 years,” she said, noting Zieler has been in the community the entire time, 20 years at his North Fort Myers address, seeing the yearly updates. “Because he had an arrest in 2016 and due to a DNA swab it just shows that the system works.” Barrett Walker, Ellis’ supervisor in the major crimes unit, said that the department is building a case.
“Now we have to organize the case. We have other evidence,” he said, adding that Zieler has not confessed to the crime. “We still have a lot of answers we need to get to.” Walker said those who knew Zieler in the 1990s or knows him now need to contact the Cape Coral police. Steve Russell, the 20th Judicial Circuit State Attorney, said the arrest of Zieler and subsequent prosecution should give hope to victims’ families and fear to those who commit crimes that cases can be solved at any time.
“The Cape Coal Police Department never let this go away,” he said.
Newlan, Walker, and Ellis all stressed that the double murder was not a cold case and that it never became a case that languished. “A lot of detectives have kept in touch, different generations of law enforcement,” Newlan said. Walker cited the evidence-gathering chain from the initial investigation. “It makes us proud of what we were and proud of what we are,” he said. “They documented and preserved evidence the right way.”
The core tenet of physical evidence collection is that an offender leaves traces behind at a crime scene – while taking other traces with them. The concept is Locard’s Exchange Principle, and has been increasingly applied to fingerprints, body fluids, touch DNA, pollen, and near-invisible signs of contact.
Could perfumes and colognes be the next clue?
Key parts of chemical signatures are transferred by direct contact, according to a new study by University College London researchers in the journal Science and Justice .
“While there is a lot of work in forensic science on transfers – for example, the transfer of fibers or the transfer of gun-shot residue – until now there has been no research on the transfer for perfumes,” said lead author Simona Ghergel, a doctoral student, in a UCL statement. “We thought there was a lot of potential with perfume because a lot of people use it. We know about 90 percent of women and 60 percent of men use perfume on a regular basis.”
A series of volatile organic compounds are in a wide variety of common perfumes and colognes. Some of the most common are limonene, linalool, geraniol, eugenol, and coumarin.
The UCL researchers concocted a test mixture that includes those key chemicals, as well as other assorted ingredients included in many scents. Samples of the test perfume were allowed to dry and “age” prior to the experiments – for as short as five minutes, to six hours or even seven days.
Then they conducted a series of experiments to determine whether direct contact, or rubbing, could transfer the signature. The contact was as quick as one minute, and as long as an hour. Rubbing with a gloved hand lasted two minutes. The subject surfaces were then measured for microscopic traces by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
The transfer depended on how strong the perfume was, how it aged, and how long the contact was. But transfer happened . Direct contact for just one minute left behind 15 components of the original 44 in the signature, they said.
The drawback is – the evidence disappears after it is collected. It would need to be analyzed almost immediately, they said. “There might be a considerable time delay between the crime and the collection of the evidence, in addition to a delay from collection to the analysis of the evidence, which can make an accurate interpretation of perfume trace evidence difficult,” they write.
Even though the proof-of-concept experiments won’t immediately translate to crime scenes, they contend they could eventually part of an important toolkit, particularly when it comes to sexual assaults.
“Due to the close contact between the victim and assailant during sexual assault, fragrance analysis has the potential to be an additional forensic tool that could be used to demonstrate a contact has taken place, and potentially indicate thy type of contact made and the timeframe since the contact,” they contend.
The potential for first measuring odor in textiles was proposed by a Polish scientist in 2003, in an industry journal. However, the scientist contended such analysis would require massive research to properly quantify.
Hidden apps are growing in popularity. While initially marketed as a way for teens to hide videos, photos, forbidden apps, and text messages from the watchful eyes of parents, the use of hidden apps is quickly expanding. Hidden apps are increasingly used for criminal activity. At the local level, they can be used as a tool to facilitate drug transactions, sexual assaults, child-porn, as well as data exfiltration and theft. On a much larger and more dangerous international scale, these apps can be used for recruitment purposes by ISIS and other terrorist groups.
Because hidden apps are becoming more common sources of evidentiary data in criminal cases, it is essential that forensic investigators take the time to learn about them. Otherwise, key evidence could be missed. When it comes to hidden apps, awareness is critical. Forensic examiners must know these apps exist and how to find them.
While there are many hidden apps on the market today, new ones are introduced virtually every day. A quick Internet search is an excellent way to stay current on what’s available and trending in the world of hidden apps. Along with knowledge of what’s out there, examiners must know how apps and data are being hidden to ensure they are not overlooked.
Types of Hidden Apps There are three main ways to hide apps. Some users manipulate their phones to hide things in places where they don’t belong. Others use apps that are designed to hide other apps inside. Then there are “official” hidden apps (also known as decoy apps), which appear to do one thing while they are actually designed to do something else. One of the most popular hidden apps is the calculator app.
These apps are fully functioning calculators with a twist. Once a password is entered, a new interface appears that allows users to access and store pictures, videos, documents or files that are otherwise hidden to someone reviewing data on the phone.
A less technical, but commonly seen way to hide apps is for the user to create folders or nests of folders on their phone that appear to be harmless, and then to store data they wish to hide within that folder. They may even install an application that allows them to change an app’s icon so that it appears to be a different app on the phone.
Hidden apps reinforce a valuable lesson in the world of forensics, just because you don’t see something initially, doesn’t mean nothing is there. While it is not realistic to expect examiners to stay current on each and every app, knowing they exist and might be installed is essential. During an investigation it is wise to consider a hidden app might be in use, which means a deeper dive is necessary.
Efforts are underway to track down the international syndicates involved in the rhino horn trade, thanks to a new DNA system.
This meant a rhino horn confiscated in Vietnam could be linked back to a crime scene in the Kruger National Park.
“With this it will be possible to identify smuggling routes and more role players than just the poachers,” says Dr Cindy Harper, developer of RhODIS Rhino DNA system. She is also a director at the University of Pretoria’s veterinary genetics laboratory at Onderstepoort.
DNA profiling would help law enforcement agencies find the trafficking route, the couriers, kingpins, and end users. One prosecutor dealing with rhino horn poaching cases welcomed the development.
“The kingpin and the mastermind are the ones we should be prosecuting, and with RhODIS becoming available to international forensic scientists and investigators, we are getting closer,” Ansie Venter said.
"We might soon be able to connect a horn in Vietnam to a poached rhino in the Kruger National Park. What an immense breakthrough.”
Harper said it was introduced in 2010. The database contained information about more than 20 000 individual rhino. Countries using the system included Namibia, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Uganda, Zambia, and Botswana.
At a RhODIS Scientific Workshop held in the Kruger National Park recently, it was agreed that the system would form the basis for the international DNA testing of rhino and rhino products. DNA forensic scientists, law enforcement officers and investigators from countries including Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, and India attended the workshop.
They were taken to a poaching crime scene in the park, allowing them to see first-hand the savagery inflicted on two rhino killed for their horns. Scientists participated in DNA sample collection training at the crime scene using the forensic sample kits developed for RhODIS. SANParks spokesperson Isaac Phaahla said they supported the collection of DNA as it was part of the criminal investigation.
“We think our colleagues in the NGO sector concentrating on user markets are doing a sterling job,” he said.
The news that convicted murderer Colin Pitchfork was denied parole was shocking. Not that he was denied, but that he was still alive. Certainly, the first case in history that utilized DNA evidence in a forensic context had to be a very long time ago. In truth, Pitchfork was put away 28 years ago. Back then, there wasn’t a single offender DNA database in the world. Now, they are standard in over 50 countries and expanding almost on a daily basis. We’ve gone through RFLP, Castro and the admissibility wars, Budowle and Lander and Nature Magazine , NRC I (and II), Dotson and Bloodsworth, and Simpson. We are even looking at the reality of performing DNA analysis in 90 minutes in police stations. DNA databases have been used to help convict Lonnie Franklin Jr., known as the Grim Sleeper, using familial testing, and have also been used to exonerate 300 innocent people and counting in the US alone.
On this odd recognition of the Pitchfork conviction, it’s important to realize that the changes brought about by the integration of DNA technology into the world’s criminal justice systems have been systemic. Statutes of limitations have been altered and even eliminated to allow for more exonerations and to crack cold cases. The passage of legislation to create DNA databases has created one of our more effective crime fighting tools. But, the broadest impact of DNA technology has been conceptual.
What started as a better piece of evidence has become a better understanding of the weaknesses in our system. Our concepts of quality forensic science, reliable evidence and trustworthy convictions have changed dramatically. Ultimately, that’s a very good change. I would even argue that our sense of responsibility to that system has changed. We can do more to protect the wrongly accused and the innocent victim, therefore we have the responsibility to do more. While original claims of DNA-based exonerations were met with skepticism and automatic objection, prosecutors now take a more thoughtful approach.
But, while we should appreciate the relative lightening-like speed with which we have leveraged the benefits of DNA in a criminal justice system designed to move slowly, we should also recognize how far we have to go. Four hundred thousand untested rape kits nationwide? Seriously? It shouldn’t be news that the Grim Sleeper was convicted with familial DNA analysis. It should be standard operating procedure.
Somewhat ironically I’ve spent the week in Manila, the Philippines with forensic DNA pioneer George Sensabaugh speaking to law and forensic science students about the impact that DNA has had on criminal justice systems since its introduction. In other words, none of my audience was alive for the Pitchfork conviction, and many weren’t even around when O.J. Simpson was declared not guilty. As I looked at the picture of Pitchfork on my PowerPoint slide, and talked about all the future applications of DNA technology that were contained in that one case, it struck me that our next responsibility is to keep the next generation of forensic scientists, prosecutors and defense attorneys inspired. Newness and novelty were great motivators for the scientists and attorneys responsible for DNA’s seismic impact over the last two decades. But DNA has been around long enough now for Colin pitchfork to qualify for, and be denied, parole.
As a new generation of scientists and lawyers integrate into criminal justice systems throughout the world, it’s important to ensure that they are not just good scientists and lawyers. As emphasized at our conference in Manila, “science in the service of society,” must remain the core message of our educational efforts.